Rapid AMPAR upregulation contributes to trace fear learning. During trace fear conditioning, Ca2+ influx via NMDARs initiates AMPAR upregulation through activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) related pathways. Newly recruited postsynaptic AMPARs help potentiate glutamatergic excitatory transmission within the ACC, establishing plasticity in neuronal populations for long term memory storage.
Descalzi et al. Molecular Brain 2012 5:6 doi:10.1186/1756-6606-5-6