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Open Access Research

Protease activated receptor 1-induced glutamate release in cultured astrocytes is mediated by Bestrophin-1 channel but not by vesicular exocytosis

Soo-Jin Oh1, Kyung-Seok Han12, Hyungju Park1, Dong ho Woo12, Hye Yun Kim1, Stephen F Traynelis3 and C Justin Lee12*

Author Affiliations

1 Center for Neural Science and Center for Functional Connectomics, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul, South Korea

2 Neuroscience Program, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon, South Korea

3 Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA

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Molecular Brain 2012, 5:38  doi:10.1186/1756-6606-5-38

Published: 12 October 2012

Abstract

Background

Glutamate is the major transmitter that mediates the principal form of excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. It has been well established that glutamate is released via Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of glutamate-containing vesicles in neurons. However, whether astrocytes exocytose to release glutamate under physiological condition is still unclear.

Findings

We report a novel form of glutamate release in astrocytes via the recently characterized Ca2+-activated anion channel, Bestrophin-1 (Best1) by Ca2+ dependent mechanism through the channel pore. We demonstrate that upon activation of protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1), an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration leads to an opening of Best1 channels and subsequent release of glutamate in cultured astrocytes.

Conclusions

These results provide strong molecular evidence for potential astrocyte-neuron interaction via Best1-mediated glutamate release.

Keywords:
Astrocyte; Bestrophin-1; Glutamate